Jewish Life in the Community
of Oberwinter in the
Reasons for and Beginning of my Investigations
ago my husband, who was then chairman of the “Rathausverein Oberwinter” (a
society for local history), received a letter from Prof. Micha Levy,
In my youth
I had learned much about National Socialism in
A lot of older people remembered the Jewish cemetery, but I was not able to find out about its exact location for a long time. In conversations with contemporary witnesses I was told about different houses, where Jewish people had lived, and again and again the name “Levy” was mentioned. People did not remember any other names. It became obvious, that the last Jews from Oberwinter had left the village between 1910 and 1920. Continuing my interviews with contemporary witnesses, I have come up with a lot of valuable information for my investigations, but it also became obvious that in some heads many prejudices still remain. For example, people thought that very rich or more educated persons must have been Jews. Thus, ultimately founded on grounds of mere prejudice, many a suggestion turned out not worthwhile after careful consideration.
archivist of Remagen (Oberwinter having become a part of that city in 1968) gave
me some names of Jewish families, which he himself had collected. And with this
I began my investigations in different archives. I went to the archive of the
Sometimes by mere chance I found out more. Thus among our own possessions I came across a document bearing the date of 1884 which regulated the sale of a garden belonging to the Jewish brothers and sisters of the Wolf family to one Peter Vogels, an ancestor of my husband. Resulting from this document I learned that Fanny and Sibilla Wolf had succeeded as owners of a shop dealing in haberdashery goods and wool to their brother Isaac, who had died a bachelor.
an old house, under the floorboards in his attic one of the members of our society
for local history found a tiny old bottle of hair tonic stained with mortar, to
which stuck a page out of a Jewish prayer book. Realizing that he had found
something quite out of the ordinary, the man took care to preserve it. Three
years ago, once again just by chance, I came in contact with a Lady now living
A Short history of the Jews in the Rhineland and in Oberwinter
As early as
the year 320 a Jewish community must have existed in
In Frankish and Carolingian times Jewish merchants were yet held in high regards, but in the 11th century the crusades lead to pogroms, concomitant phenomena of the spirit of that era. Both the legal and the social situation of the Jews began to decline dramatically. The Christian craftsmen then united and founded guilds, the membership of which was barred to any Jew, thus excluding them from many professions. The few fields of activity still accessible to them, such as the lending of money, the cattle-trade and the skinning of animals, were ill-reputed and abhorred. Though under the reign of Emperor Friedrich II (1212-1250) they were taken under the Kaiser’s protection and proclaimed royal menials of chamber (servi camerae), this also meant that they had become the Emperor’s property. He could deal with them as it pleased him, burden “his” Jews with taxes or even sell or give them in pawn to others.
middle of the 15th century the Jews were held responsible for the
Black Death. Carl Brisch wrote that “hatred
raged against the Jews until it became sheer madness, turning the Christian
population into Jew-strangling angels of death. From one end of
Due to the Reformation of the 16th century the Jews had to suffer considerably. Martin Luther, believing at first that he would be able to convert the Jews to Protestantism and eventually failing to do so, soon turned into a terrible enemy. It was also in this time, though, that he translated the Jewish Bible into German, thus familiarizing the Germans with the text of the Old Testament. In the 16th and 17th century the situation of the Jews, especially in the cities, improved a little.
Thirty Years’ War of 1618-1648, big parts of central
Documents of Protection and Regulations for Jews
end of the 19th century, Jews in the
Since the village repeatedly came under the rule of different sovereigns, we cannot state exactly as to which extent the Jews of Oberwinter were affected by protective taxes and special regulations. In 1318 the village became fief of Gerhard von Landskron, to whom, on the first of September 1336, the privilege “always to keep and protect 12 Jews in his territory” was granted by Emperor Ludwig. The political climate regarding the Jews is said to have been very restrictive in the dukedom of Juelich, to which one half of Oberwinter had belonged since 1567, until by 1593 the entire village was added to its territory. In 1608 a 1554 Police Rule was reissued which was to regulate the “keeping at bay” of Jews in the dukedoms Juelich and Berg, but nonetheless documents of protection continued to be issued until, in 1779, the last of these document were granted to 221 families in Juelich and Berg.
French occupation of the
And so, Oberwinter being a part of the “Landbuergermeisterei Remagen” in those days, on October 26th, 35 Jewish persons, among them the Jews of Oberwinter, came to the City Hall and declared their new names. The names of the Jews of Oberwinter have been set down as follows:
Salomon Levy and Veronique Levy kept their old names,
Fromet Barauch became Veronique Schoen,
Abraham Levy became Germain/Hermann Levy,
Jakob Levy became Jacques Levy,
Teubgen Levy became Josefine Levy and
Scheidgen Levy became Francoise Levy.
As for the Christian population, all births,
weddings and deaths are documented in the church registers. But, registration
of civilian status for all parts of the population having begun as late as 1798
in the lands left of the
In 1814 the Russian Cossacks expelled the
French and, together with all the lands on the left shore of the Rhine,
Oberwinter became a part of
In 1869 a new Prussian Law for Jews abolished the
repressions Napoleon’s Decree of 1808 had imposed upon them. With the
foundation of the German Reich in 1872 all Jews in the entire
For centuries, if not for thousands of years, people
in Oberwinter have earned their livelihood by agriculture, winemaking, and
fishing. Oberwinter and the smaller neighbouring villages are being mentioned
as fiefs of monasteries and feudal lords, which means that the inhabitants had
to give large parts of their income to the liege lords. Because of the village’s
geographical position on the shore of the
Throughout the centuries, the
In 1857 a train station was built in Rolandseck, a northern part of Oberwinter, to be followed in 1899 by a second station in the village itself. From now on Oberwinter was to profit from the growing network of transportation and the ever increasing number of tourists that came for holidays. At the same time a major means of income suddenly failed. Winemaking had to be given up entirely, since large parts of the vines had fallen prey to the wine pest and repeated efforts to limit the damage had proved in vain. Together with the recently founded Society of Winegrowers, many families went bankrupt. For a few years, the construction of a little shelter harbour in 1891 provided the male inhabitants with an opportunity to earn a meagre income, loading and disembarking the goods as day labourers.
It seem especially worth mentioning that,
unlike most of the communities in the predominantly catholic
Written evidence of Jewish inhabitants in Oberwinter
On page 622 of the “Germania Judaica” it is mentioned that Jewish moneylenders lived here in the twenties of 14th century.
In 1612 Uri Veibesch from Oberwinter died in
Leutesdorf (a little village on the other bank of the
Statistics about the Jewish population in the communities belonging to the district of Koblenz (“Juedische Bevoelkerung in Gemeinden des Regierungsbezirks Koblenz“) of the years 1858, 1895, and 1929 list the population of Oberwinter according to confession:
According to the “Rheinischer Antiquarius” of 1862, in this year three Jewish families of 10 persons altogether were living in Oberwinter.
In January 1863 mayor Beinhauer wrote a letter to the county commissioner von Groote in Ahrweiler, stating that “4 [Jewish] families with 20 souls” were then living in Oberwinter.
In 1857 the families of Jakob Levy and David Heymann were listed. A paper dated 1866 offers a list of 23 persons, but regretfully no names. The tax register of 1879/1880 shows 5 Jewish families.
These are the families of
Heymann, David (later called: David, Hermann)
Religious Life and School for Jewish Pupils
As the highest number of registered Jewish persons in Oberwinter amounts to a total of 23, it is to be assumed that no divine service according to the Jewish rites was ever held here, since the required presence of at least 10 adult men could in all likelihood not be realized. The few families who lived here were to poor to build a synagogue or to pay a rabbi. In 1859 a Synagogue Association was founded it Sinzig, to which nine individual parishes belonged, Oberwinter being one of them. In 1869 the Jewish parish of Remagen, which included the Jews of Oberwinter, celebrated the official opening of the newly-built synagogue. According to the fashion of the times, the synagogue was erected in oriental style. On this occasion together with the Jewish population, the mayor and the town councillors participated in the celebrations, Jews and Christians had decorated the streets with garlands. The people from Oberwinter had to walk for about 5 kilometers until they reached the synagogue, about 1 hour one way. The parish of the synagogue also organized social events, for instance a Hanukkah-party in December 1920 and a meeting of the “Handwerkerchewra”, a society founded to encourage young Jews to learn a trade or a craft.
The education of Jewish children
For a long
time education in
I came across the first testimony about a Jewish boy attending school in Oberwinter in a letter of the Protestant priest dated1839. The priest criticised that several pupils, among them Salomon Levi, had failed to attend the instructions in November and that their fathers had consequently been ordered to account for this in the town hall. Though in 1850 a Jewish teacher of primary and religious education was working nearby in Remagen, the children of Oberwinter still attended the two Christian elementary schools of the village. Lessons in Jewish religion were given to 10 children in 1897 and 1898 in Remagen by the teacher Mannheimer. From 1899 on teacher H. Friedmann gave lessons for 13 children in Sinzig, from 1901 onwards also in Remagen.
The Jewish Cemeteries in Oberwinter and Rolandseck
Though countless witnesses have given incontestable evidence for the existence of both cemeteries, yet so far it has not been possible to find a written document to account for the location of the cemetery in Rolandseck. The cemetery in Oberwinter was situated opposite of today’s train station and covered only 55 square meters of ground. It is set down in the original land register of 1834 as owned by the “Israelitische Gemeinde” (Jewish parish). Old people spoke about very old and flat tombstones in Oberwinter. In 1936 during the Nazi-regime, a new main road was built there and all the tombstones have disappeared. Nothing has so far been found out about the whereabouts of these stones.
We do not
know why a second cemetery was founded in Rolandseck. Was no vacancy left in the
The tombstones of Rolandseck were manufactured from sandstone with rounded edges in the time between 1883 and 1900. Three stones belong to the family David/Wolf, four to the Levy-family, two of which are embellished with remarkably beautiful Levites’ pitchers. The four stones of the Levy family alongside with a German inscription also bear an extensive text in Hebrew, honouring the deceased person. They also feature a Hebrew blessing: “May his (her) soul be wrapped up in the bundle of life”. On the gravestone of Adelheid David we find a star (not the Star of David) and a palm leaf, alike to those being used as a symbol for rebirth and immortality by the Christians. The tombstone of Fani Wolf is decorated with a Star of David (this symbol usually signifies the tomb of a man), but this stone is the only one without any text in Hebrew. The mixture of German and Hebrew texts and the use of symbols, which can be both of Jewish and of Christian origin, implies an advanced state of assimilation of the reciprocal cultures of the persons buried here.
Witnesses of the time period remember that both on this ground and on another piece of land bordering on that until about 1970 25-30 Jewish tombstones were still standing. In spite of every effort I could not come up with any information as to where the other stones may be found. A former owner of the area, obviously lacking even the slightest trace of respect for the sleep of the dead and the eternal irrevocability of a Jewish cemetery, had the stones removed, because he intended to erect a private building on the place. Even though a theory has been put forth according to which the stones found in Rolandseck had simply been removed from Oberwinter, transported to the neighbouring village to be stored there, and that consequently no cemetery had ever existed in Rolandseck, a large number of witnesses object this theory.
The relationship between Jewish and Christian Population
Today we only can speculate as to the quality of the Jewish-Christian relationship in former times. A lot of non-Jewish authors, who have written books about the Jewish population of their home-villages, marked the good relationship between the religious groups. This may have resulted from the wish to believe that there simply could not have been any anti-Semitism in one’s own community, or at least in one’s own social environment. However comprehensible such a wish may be, it still might not go much beyond mere wishful thinking. As for Oberwinter we certainly do not find ample material which would answer the question concerning the quality of the mutual relationship of the religious groups. Studying documents from villages and cities in the vicinity from the middle-ages, we come across much evidence that especially by the common folk the Jews were regarded as unwelcome competitors in the fight for food and survival.
Beginning with the attendance of Jewish children in Christian schools in the 19th century, at least some degree of social approximation must have occurred in the different groups, transcending the mere economical rivalry of the past. The Christian farmers liked to do business with the Jews who traded in cattle, for they knew them as reliable partners in business.
A lot of anti-Jewish prejudices in the Christian society were grounded on religious differences and fed by ignorance about the Jewish religion. As I have already pointed out, the mutual coexistence even of the two Christian groups in Oberwinter was not always uncomplicated, too, no matter what people may say today. Perhaps the existence of two different Christian parishes in a region where only pure Catholicism was to be found elsewhere, led to some more tolerance for the third religious group, the Jews.
marriages have been unthinkable for a long time, not only Jewish-Christian
marriages but also marriages between Catholics and Protestants. The newspaper
“Bonner Zeitung” wrote on October 12th 1854: “Today in Niederbreisig a catholic girl who has married a Jew will be
excommunicated. The local synagogue is also said to have decided to exclude the
Israelite from the parish, because he married a Christian girl”.
For many Jews the way to social promotion and complete equality was only opened
for them if they consented to Christian baptism. For a long time proselytizing
Jews and convincing them to receive baptism was considered highly praiseworthy
among Christians. In 1843 in
By the end of 19th century both sides increased their efforts for mutual acceptance, as the example of Christian authorities participating in the celebrations for the inauguration of the new synagogue in Remagen shows. At the inauguration of the new Catholic Church in 1872 both Jews and Protestants decorated their houses with flags and leaves.
woman of our parish who went to school together with Jewish children told me
that they were treated like all the other pupils and had been exempt from
attendance on Sabbath. The diary of Ferdinand Stausberg speaks about his
friendship to the Jewish boy Julius Levy. The children of both families where intimate
with members of the other family and the Levy-family gave matzo to the
Christian children on Passover. Ferdinand and Julius stayed friends when they
Another witness of the time, though, reported the shady prejudices of her parents: “My mother told me, that she used to run quickly past the Jewish houses, because it somehow felt uncanny for her, particularly when a person in that house has died.” The dialect-nickname “Juedde-Jul” (Jew Julius), commonly used for Julius Levy, gives reason to suppose that people, distinguishing him from others of the same (and in those days quite popular) name by this attribute, were aware of the fact that he was a Jew and that, together with this, there must have been some notion of him being “different in some way or the other”.
venture to say that a factual, complete emancipation of the Jews had never been
realized in the heads of Christian Germany. Had it been otherwise, how then
could we account for the fact that after only a short interval of legally
vouchsafed equality the terrible ideas and notions of National Socialism fell
on such fertile ground in most parts of
Jewish Families and Individuals in Oberwinter
The limited space of an article in a journal excludes remembering all the Jewish people who once lived in Oberwinter. The material I have collected is extensive and includes, along with data pertaining to individual families, further information about e.g. professions, houses, cities where people moved to, and some anecdotes. Only in few rare cases could I obtain a photograph of the people. Even though the archives of the Rathausverein conserves countless photographs of school classes dated before 1900, there is now nobody alive who could tell us who is to be seen on them. So for each family I would like to give a short survey.
As already mentioned before, the percentage of Jews in Oberwinter’s population was not very high. Most of them worked as butchers or in the cattle trade and almost all were poor. In the early 19th century, when the land registers were begun, they owned unpretentious houses which quite often they shared with other families, and also small gardens, fields and vineyards, because, just like their Christian neighbours, by working in their professions they could not cover their expenses and earn enough to make a living. A striking fact to the modern observer, Jewish wives were often older than their husbands and it was also not unusual that distant relatives, for instance cousins, would get married.
When the Jews were granted equality in the second half of 19th century, many of them moved to the bigger cities where they hoped to find better schools for their children and better opportunities of earning money in their own professions. So industrialisation, rural migration, and the slow impoverishment of the population of Oberwinter due to the vine pest might well be the main reasons why the Jews moved away from Oberwinter in the late 19th and early 20th century.
Some families or persons lived in Oberwinter for a short time only, like the sisters Rosetta and Berta Hermanns, who came here at the age of 4 and 6 from Rheinbreitbach, a village situated on the right bank of the Rhine. We do not know for how long they lived here, for their mother had died shortly before coming to Oberwinter, where they might have found temporary accommodation before their father remarried and took them with him to Inden-Lucherberg where they then grew up.
the river, the David family, too, had
moved to Oberwinter from Unkel on the right bank of the
At the age of 75 Adolf Aron returned to Bad Honnef as a survivor of the concentration camp Theresienstadt. Two years he died later in the Hospital of the “Sisters of Dernbach” who had granted him accommodation upon his return.
granddaughters of Gustav David managed to escape from Nazi-Germany and to emigrate
Daniel Meyer and his wife Jeannette, née Cahn were
running butcher’s shop. Their stay in Oberwinter is testified from 1893 to
1910. Near the house with the butcher’s shop they owned vineyards, meadows and
a little wood. In 1899 two of their children attended a Christian school in
Oberwinter. Daniel Meyer was a paying member of the village’s volunteer fire-brigade.
Six children were born to the couple while they lived in Oberwinter, one died
in infancy. Their eldest son, Walter, married one Frieda Harf from Hochneukirch,
in January 1914 their only child Erich was born. Walter became a soldier in the
Reserve Infantry Regiment nr. 98 and, when World War I started, he died on September
17th, 1914. He is buried on the cemetery for fallen soldiers in
Mathilde Meyer were deported with their husbands to Auschwitz and
The Wolf/Wolff-family is found among those who appear on the tax-list of 1879. To Isaak Abraham and his wife Sibille Nathan was born a boy with the first name David in Oberwinter on January 29th 1779. Later his name was David Wolf. He married Adelheid Abraham from Flamersheim. Between 1815 and 1823 the children Isaak, Sibilla and Veronika (Fanny) were born to them, all of which died unmarried. When Isaak died in 1884 he left a parcel of land to his sisters, who sold it to Peter Vogels. The document provides us with the information that the sisters were running a little shop for haberdashery goods and wool and, furthermore, that Sibilla could not sign the contract, because she did not know how to write. The sisters died in 1886 and 1898.
The Levy family lived in Oberwinter for at least
200 years. The first family member we learn about is Moyses, who is mentioned
as head of the family in the homage-list of 1717.
Apart from Moyses we find Brosius, Hirz and Leiser mentioned in the
these families we know of three other Jewish people with the names Veibesch,
Joist, and Cahn who lived here. Uri Veibesch
from Oberwinter died about 1612 in Leutesdorf and was buried in Hammerstein. He
and his daughters are mentioned in the memorial book of Niederbreisig.
His daughters Gitle/Guetle and Saerchen were buried on the old Jewish cemetery
near Castle Rheineck in Bad Breisig, his daughter Rechle in
Sebastian Dunkhass bonded his manor to the Jew Joist in 1647. Further information about Joist could not be produced.
Rosa Cahn became a midwife in Oberwinter and the villages around in 1819. Even though she did good work, some Christian women avoided her, because she was Jewish. By 1821 she was called “Widow Cahn”, received a salary of 10 Taler, free accommodation and firewood.
About 1910 two Jewish girls with one or two Jewish parents were adopted or taken into care by Christians in Oberwinter. Both have been baptized and married Christian man. They survived the times of persecution relatively unmolested, but who can imagine today the fears they and their families had to undergo during the Nazi times?
In the beginning of 20th century an elderly couple, the protestant butcher Gustav Nowack and his Jewish wife Sabine Nowack were owners of a little slaughterhouse and running a butcher’s shop for oxen in Oberwinter. Quite a few anecdotes about Sabine have been handed down to us. The couple moved away in 1933, because the house with the butcher-shop had burned down. It is said that they were getting up in years by then and it remains unknown to this day whither they went after they had left Oberwinter and what befell them afterwards.
Rosa Doerflinger and her son Karl-Heinz from
help of her later husband Robert Murmann (1901-1984) Johanna Kirchhoff (née Wolff)
could survive the Nazi era in Oberwinter. Mrs. Wolff was born on May 27th
1902 in Bremverhaven. Robert Murmann was a Steward on a KdF-steamboat (the KdF,
i.e. Kraft durch Freude, which literally means "Strength through Joy", was a large state-controlled leisure
organization) and got to know his wife in
Rolandseck the elderly couple Salomon
and Henriette Jacoby, together with their daughter Hildegard Schott (her husband having been deported and murdered) found
refuge for some time. An entire network of rescuers helped them, among them the
couple Heinz and Josefine Odenthal from Bonn who brought the Jewish family to
the Hotel “Anker” in Rolandseck, which was then in the property of Mrs. Odenthal’s
parents. Sibylla Cronenberg, mother of Mrs. Odenthal, hid the refugees there,
when it became to dangerous for them in
War II., Maximilian Kirschberg together
with his wife and children lived in Oberwinter. His descendants are now living
in many different countries of the world. He had married a Christian woman, and
his children had received catholic baptism and went to a catholic school. On a
Spanish web-site I
found a little article with the title “España honora, por primera vez, a las
A few other Jewish persons (most of them married to a Christian partner) have lived in Oberwinter or Rolandseck since then, but none of them ever spoke about being Jewish. Still, the traumas of the few remaining descendents of German Jews are too immense.
Meanwhile most of the German Jewish survivors of the NS regime have passed away and the number of those who could still bear witness to the terrors of theses times both for the sake of keeping alive the memory of the victims and as a warning to the younger generation ever decreases. For this very reason I am myself working on a publication about the Jewish man and woman of Oberwinter, so that the victims may not be forgotten and no other such reign as the ominous “Third Reich” will ever be established on German soil.
 Bonn, 1976
 Gedenkbuch Opfer der Verfolgung der Juden unter nationalsozialistischer Gewaltherrschaft in Deutschland 1933-1945, Bundesarchiv Koblenz, 1986
 Stausberg, Ferdinand: Eine Kindheit in Oberwinter, published by Rathausverein Oberwinter, November 2006
 Gidal, N.T.: Die Juden in Deutschland von der Roemerzeit bis zur Weimarer Republik, Guetersloh 1988
 Germania Judaica, Bd. II. Von 1238 bis zur Mitte des 14. Jahrhunderts, 2. Halbband Maastricht-Zwolle, J.C.B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck) Tuebingen 1968
 Die Juden in Deutschland, page 11
 Geschichte der Juden in Coeln und Umgebung in aeltester Zeit bis auf die Gegenwart, Muehlheim am Rhein, 1879
 Die Juden in Deutschland
 Rings, Anton und Anita. Die ehemalige juedische Gemeinde in Linz am Rhein, Linz 1989, P. 49 ff
 Laux, Stephan: Zwischen Anonymitaet und herrschaftlicher Erfassung in: Juedisches Leben im Rheinland, Vom Mittelalter bis zur Gegenwart, edited by Monika Gruebel und Georg Moelich
 Kleemann, K. in: Heimatjahrbuch des Kreises Ahrweiler 2002, Namensdeclaration der Remagener Juden vom 26. October 1808
 Germania Judaica, Band II
 Ein edler Stein sei sein Baldachin, Juedische Friedhoefe in Rheinland-Pfalz, Landesamt für Denkmalpflege Rheinland-Pfalz (editor), 1996
 Stadtarchiv Remagen
 Rings: Die ehemalige juedische Gemeinde in Linz am Rhein
 Oberwinter 1702-1899, Pfarrei St. Laurentius, edited by Westdeutsche Gesellschaft für Familienkunde e.V., adapted by Dr. Gerhard Hentschel, Sinzig, Köln 2003
 Unkelbach – Dorfgeschichtsbuch, Unkelbach 1999
 Statistische Materialien zur Geschichte der juedischen Bevölkerung, adapted by Werner Knopp, Landeasarchivverwaltung Rheinland-Pfalz
 Kleinpass, Hans: Die Einweihung der Synagoge in Remagen anno 1869 in: Heimatjahrbuch des Kreises Ahrweiler, 1991
 Landeshauptarchiv Koblenz, 441/9705
 LHA Koblenz, 441/9739
 LHA Koblenz, 441/9705
 Menacher, Rudolf and Reiffen, Hans-Ulrich „Knoblauch und Weihraus“ Juden und Christen in Sinzig 1914-1992, Bonn 1996
 Die Einweihung der Synagoge in Remagen......
 Juedischer Bote vom Rhein, im Stadtarchiv Bonn
 Buerger, Udo: Zum Erziehungswesen der Juden im Kreis Ahrweiler und zu den Synagogenverhaeltnissen allgemein, in: Sachor, Heft Nr. 12-2/96
 Archiv of Protestant parish, Oberwinter
 Statistisches Jahrbuch des deutsch-israelitischen Gemeindebundes 1887-1905
 Landeshauptarchiv Koblenz, department Kobern-Gondorf
 Die Handwerksgeschichte der Stadt Ahrweiler, Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler 1984
 Stadtarchiv Bonn
 Statut des „Rheinisch-Westfaelischen Vereins für Israel“ und Korrespondenz im ev. Kirchenarchiv, Oberwinter
 Sebastian, J.:Festschrift zum 800jährigen Jubiläum der Pfarrei Oberwinter, Oberwinter 1931
 Book of departure in Stadtarchiv Unkel
 Note of Mrs. Renate Xhonneux from July 18th, 2005
 Nekum, Adolf: Honnefs Kinder Israels, edited by Heimat- und Geschichtsverein Herrschaft Loewenburg e.V. 1988
 Schleindl, Angelika: Juedisches Leben im Kreis Cochem-Zell, Briedel 1996
 Röttger, Rüdiger: Davon haben wir nichts gewusst – Juedische Schicksale aus Hochneukirch/Rheinland 1933-145, , Düsseldorf 1998
 Gedenkbuch Opfer der Verfolgung der Juden unter nationalsozialistischer Gewaltherrschaft in Deutschland 1933-1945, Bundesarchiv Koblenz 1986
 Statement of his grandniece Mrs. Ruth Wasker, November 2006
 Contract in property of the Metternich family, Oberwinter
 Oberwinter St. Laurentius 1702-1899, Köln 2003
 Rings, A. & A.: Die ehemalige juedische Gemeinde in Linz am Rhein, Linz 1989
 Ein edler Stein sei sein Baldachin, Juedische Friedhöfe in Rheinland-Pfalz, Landesamt für Denkmalpflege Rheinland-Pfalz, 1996
 Stadtarchiv Remagen
 Dorfgeschichtsbuch Unkelbach, Unkelbach 1999
 Riek, A.: Facharbeit „Gesundheitswesen und Armenfuersorge in der Landbuergermeisterei Remagen im 19. Jahrhundert) 1987, copy in the archives of Rathausvereins
 Statements of several whitnesses of the time
 This research is based on a report of the nurse of the Protestant parish, who attended the couple until their death.
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